Archive for June, 2009

The Case for Content Strategy

Over the last couple of years I’ve come to appreciate the term content strategy. It began in 2007 with Rachel Lovinger‘s article Content Strategy: The Philosophy of Data. Here she urged readers to take a closer look at content itself, and then find out exactly who’s responsible for making it relevant, comprehensive, and efficient to produce.

I liked that, because it touches upon the very basics of communication, something which, I think, is somewhat neglected at the expense of design issues (keeping sentences short, using chunked text, putting action in verbs, etc.). Way too often, content is taken for granted. It’s what the customer brings to the agency, or something to be filled in later instead of the “lorem ipsum” gibberish, designers use.

Basically, content strategy adresses the issues of anyone trying to communicate anything, i.e. how to make your website function as:

  • a truthful representation of the sender’s intentions
  • a message relevant to the user
  • a correct use of language and imagery
  • an open channel between reader and author

And, of course, if you’re any good at writing, your text might even have an aesthetic value on its own.

Producing useful and useable web content on a daily basis isn’t a matter of being touched by the hand of god, or endowed with the perfect content from your client; it’s a matter of planning, and you need to be a part of it. Since internet communication involves quite a few disciplines, there’s a lot to plan for. A few things to consider:

  • Editorial strategy defines the guidelines by which all online content is governed: values, voice, tone, legal and regulatory concerns, user-generated content, and so on. This practice also defines an organization’s online editorial calendar, including content life cycles.
  • Web writing is the practice of writing useful, usable content specifically intended for online publication. This is a whole lot more than smart copywriting. An effective web writer must understand the basics of user experience design, be able to translate information architecture documentation, write effective metadata, and manage an ever-changing content inventory.
  • Metadata strategy identifies the type and structure of metadata, also known as “data about data” (or content). Smart, well-structured metadata helps publishers to identify, organize, use, and reuse content in ways that are meaningful to key audiences.
  • Search engine optimization is the process of editing and organizing the content on a page or across a website (including metadata) to increase its potential relevance to specific search engine keywords.
  • Content management strategy defines the technologies needed to capture, store, deliver, and preserve an organization’s content. Publishing infrastructures, content life cycles and workflows are key considerations of this strategy.
  • Content channel distribution strategy defines how and where content will be made available to users. (Side note: please consider e-mail marketing in the context of this practice; it’s a way to distribute content and drive people to find information on your website, not a standalone marketing tactic.)

I didn’t make that list (it comes from Kristina Halvorson, and it’s part of the article The Discipline of Content Strategy), but I agree. All of these branches are tools that help us create meaningful user experiences.

While there are obvious overlaps between content strategy and information architecture, I think that the two first disciplines on the list add something genuinely new. It’s not enough to structure and make the things on your website findable, you also need to make sure that the very content you’re providing is right for the occasion.

So, ultimately, it’s all about efficiency, and planning supports efficiency. Since creating content is both difficult and expensive (and always seems to be somebody else’s job), you want to make sure that every aspect of it performs at its best, and therefore there’s good reason to take the concept of content strategy (CS) seriously.

See also Jeffrey MacIntyre‘s eloquent Content-tious Strategy.

Update  (2010-04-27): In this video Rachel Lovinger, Jeffrey MacIntyre, and Karen McGrane share their view on CS at the Content Strategy, Manhattan Style event, in London, 13 April, 2010.

Introducing EPUB

With digital books finding their way to more and more, people read everywhere and on a variety of different devices. A lot of these have small displays, and this is a problem if the text you’re reading is in PDF.

EPUB is an XML publishing format for reflowable digital books and publications standardized by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF), a trade and standards association for the digital publishing industry. For the record, this organization was formerly known as Open eBook Forum. “Reflowable” means that it scales to fit different screen sizes.

Since its official adoption by IDPF in 2007, EPUB has become popular among major publishers as Hachette, O’Reilly and Penguin. The format allows publishers to produce and send a single digital publication file through distribution, and it can be read using a variety of open source and commercial software. You can use O’Reilly’s Bookworm online for free, and you can go buy Adobe’s Digital Editions (ADE). It works on all major operating systems, on e-book devices (like Kindle and Sony PRS), and other small devices such as the Apple iPhone.

Collectively referred to as EPUB, the format is made up of three open standards:

  • Open eBook Publication Structure Container Format (OCF): Describes the directory tree structure and file format (zip) of an EPUB archive
  • Open Publication Structure (OPS): Specifies the common vocabularies for the eBook, especially the formats allowed to be used for book content (for example XHTML and CSS)
  • Open Packaging Format (OPF): Defines the required and optional metadata, reading order, and table of contents in an EPUB

To learn more, Liza Daly of Threepress has done a nice tutorial called Build a digital book with EPUB, available at IBM developerWorks. To really get to know EPUB, you’ll need to read the specifications: OCF, OPS, and OPF.